Increasing demand for it and the use of cement require fly ash, slag, rice husk ash, etc. And in addition to cement in concrete construction. is an important component of the social, economic, and infrastructure development of human society. Portland cement-based concrete is one of the most important building materials in the world. To this day, we still rely on cement and concrete to build many infrastructures such as buildings, towers, roads, bridges, bridges, tunnels, industries, and river training jobs. Around 30 billion tons of concrete are produced and used annually worldwide. Global cement consumption has increased to 3.2 billion tons in one year and is expected to grow to 5 billion tons by 2021.
Alternative technologies for producing concrete without using cement are currently unavailable. OPC is an energy-dense material followed by steel and aluminum. OPC emits large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere at about 7% of global emissions. This phenomenon requires additives and/or chemicals such as slag, fly ash (FA), and rice husk ash (RHA) to make cement and concrete. However, the use of Pozzolanic materials, whether natural, agricultural or industrial by-products in the manufacture of compound cement, has increased interest for a variety of reasons for the quality of environmental, economic, technological, and diversified products. Sustainable concrete produced from Pozzolanic materials is one of the solutions that some researchers have proposed over the past few decades.
Pozzolans are a good substance that contains silica and/or alumina. It does not show its binding properties, except in the presence of calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. Pozzolans also react with silica and alumina to form cementitious substances. A large number of Pozzolanic substances are always produced as waste in every corner of the world. Usually, all of these Pozzolanic wastes are dumped into ponds, rivers, and lakes without commercial revenues. For example, slag is pozzolans which are produced as an industrial by-product of steelmaking. Annually about 200 million tons of slag is produced worldwide. However, only 45 million tons of slag were used and the rest discarded. It is another by-product produced from coal-fired power plants. About 1,000 million tons of FA are produced worldwide. RHA is produced as waste from rice processing plants. About 110 million tons of rice bran (about 20% of 550 million tons of rice) and 16 million to 22 million tons of RHA are produced worldwide.
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